Further Information



Mill, RR, Ruhsam M, Thomas P, MF Gardner &  PM Hollingsworth (2017) Araucaria goroensis (Araucariaceae), a new Monkey Puzzle from New Caledonia, and nomenclatural notes on Araucaria muelleri. Edinburgh Journal of Botany:doi: 10.1017/S0960428617000014.


Ruhsam M, Clark A, Finger A, Wulff AS, Mill RR, Thomas P, Gardner MF, Gaudeul M, Ennos RA and PM Hollingsworth (2016). Hidden in plain view: cryptic diversity in the emblematic Araucaria of New Caledonia. American Journal of Botany 103(5): 888-898


Cavender N, Westwood M, Bechtoldt C, Donnelly G, Oldfield S, MF Gardner , D Rae and W McNamara. (2015). Strengthening the conservation value of ex situ tree conservation. Oryx. 49(3): 416-424

Ruhsam M, Rai HS, Mathews S, Ross TG, Graham SW, Raubeson LA, Mei W, Thomas P, Gardner MF, Ennos RA, Hollingsworth PM. (2015) Does complete plastid genome sequencing improve species discrimination and phylogenetic resolution in Araucaria? Mol Ecol Resour. 2015 Jan 22. doi: 10.1111/1755-0998.12375. [Epub ahead of print]


Gardner MF  (2014) Conifers under threat. Chartered Forester Winter Issue 2014/15: 16-18.

[This article first appeared in the Winter 2014/15 issue of Chartered Forester, the magazine for members of the Institute of Chartered Foresters (ICF), and is reproduced by kind permission of the ICF. www.charteredforesters.org]

Gaudeul M, Gardner MF, Thomas P, Ennos RA, Hollingsworth PM. (2014) Evolutionary dynamics of emblematic Araucaria species (Araucariaceae) in New Caledonia: nuclear and chloroplast markers suggest recent diversification, introgression, and a tight link between genetics and geography within species. BMC Evol Biol. 5(14)171. doi: 10.1186/s12862-014-0171-6.

Kranitz ML, Biffin E, Clark A, Hollingsworth ML, Ruhsam M, Gardner MF, THOMAS P, Mill RR, Ennos RA, Gaudeul M, Lowe AJ and Hollingsworth PM (2014). Evolutionary Diversification of New Caledonian Araucaria. PloS ONE 9: e110308


Gaudeul M, Rouhan G, Gardner MF and Hollingsworth PM (2012) AFLP markers provide insights into the evolutionary relationships and diversification of New Caledonian Araucaria species (Araucariaceae) American Journal of Botany 99: 68–81

Kettle CJ, Ennos RA, Jaffre T, McCoy S, Le-Borgne T, Gardner MF and PM Hollingsworth. (2012) Importance of demography and dispersal for the resilience and restoration of a critically endangered tropical conifer Araucaria  nemorosa. Diversity and Distributions 18: 248-259


Christenhusz MJM, Reveal JL, Farjon A, Gardner MF, MILL RM and MW Chase  (2011) A new classification and linear sequence of extant gymnosperms. Phytotaxa 19: 55–70


Kettle CK, Ennos RA, Jaffre T, MF Gardner and PM Hollingsworth (2008) Cryptic genetic bottlenecks during restoration of an endangered tropical conifer. Biological Conservation 141: 1953-1961.


Soto DP, Le Quesne C, A Lara and MF Gardner (2007) Precarious conservation status of Pilgerodendron uviferum forests in their northern distribution in the Chilean Coastal Range. Bosque 28: 263-270.


Farjon A, Bachman S, Gardner MF, Luscombe D, C Reynolds and P Thomas (2006) Conservation Assessments of Data Deficient (DD) Conifers Using Herbarium and Geographical Information System (GIS) data. Edinburgh: RBG Kew, Bedgebury Pinetum, RBGE. 311 pp.

Gardner MF, Hechenleitner V, Thomas P, Echeverría C, Escobar B, Brownless P and Martínez AC (2006). Threatened Plants of Central and South Chile: Distribution, Conservation and Propagation. Universidad Austral de Chile & Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. 188 pp. (English language)

Rae D, Cubey R, Gardner MF, J Latta and K Walter (2006) Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh Catalogue of plants 2006. Edinburgh: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. 598 pp. 


Gardner MF (2005). The International Conifer Conservation Programme. Plant Heritage 12: 23-26. 

Gardner MF and Hechenleitner VP (2005). Myrtles of Chile. Plantsman New Series 4: 152-158.

Hechenleitner VP, Gardner MF, Thomas P, Echeverría C, Escobar B, P Brownless and CA Martínez (2005) Plantas Amenazadas del Centro-Sur de Chile. Universidad Austral de Chile/ Real Jardín Botánico de Edimburgo. 187 pp. (Spanish language)

Smith-Ramirez C, Campillo B, Celis-Diez JL and Gardner MF (2005). Historia natural de la enredadera endémica Berberidopsis corallina. En: Smith-Ramírez, C., J.J. Armesto & C. Valdovinos. (eds.). Historia, biodiversidad y ecología de los bosques costeros de Chile, pp. 284-288. 708 pp.  


Gardner MF  (2003) The International Conifer Conservation Programme. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 615: 405-409.

Gardner MF and A Lara. (2003) The Conifers of Chile: an overview of their Distribution and Ecology. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 615: 165 - 170. 

Lara A, Gardner MF, Vergara A and B Escobar. (2003) The Use and Conservation of Fitzroya cupressoides (Alerce) Forests in Chile. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 615: 381-385. 


Bekessy SA, Sleep D, Stott A, Menucinni M, Thomas P, Ennos RA, Burgman MA, Gardner MF and AC Newton (2002). Adaptation of Monkey Puzzle to arid environments reflected by regional differences in stable carbon isotype ratio and allocation to root biomass. Forest Genetics 9: 63-70.

Herbert J, Hollingsworth PM, Gardner MF, Mill, RR, Thomas P & Jaffré T. (2002). Conservation genetics and phylogenetics of New Caledonian Retrophyllum (Podocarpaceae) species. New Zealand J. Bot. 40: 175-188.

Sinclair WT, Mill RR, Möller M, Gardner MF, Woltz P, Jaffré T, Preston J, Hollingsworth M and Ponge A (2002). Evolutionary relationships of the New Caledonian heterotrophic conifer, Parasitaxus usta (Podocarpaceae), inferred from chloroplast trnL-F intron / spacer and nuclear rDNA ITS2 sequences. Plant Syst. Evol. 233: 79-104.


Allnutt T, Courtis J, Gardner MF and AC Newton (2001) Genetic variation in wild Chilean and cultivated British populations of Podocarpus salignus D.Don (Podocarpaceae). Edin. J. Bot. 58: 459-473.

Etisham-ul-haq M, Allnutt TR, Smith-Ramírez C, Gardner MF, Armesto JJ and AC Newton (2001) Patterns of Genetic Variation in in and ex situ populations of the threatened Chilean vine Berberidopsis corallina, detected using RAPD markers. Annals of Botany 87: 813-821. 


Allnutt T, Newton AC, Lara A, Premoli A, J Armesto and MF Gardner (1999) Genetic variation in Fitzroya cupressoides (alerce), a threatened South American conifer. Jour. Molecular Ecology 8: 975-987. 

Fraver S, González ME, Silla F, A Lara and MF Gardner (1999) Composition and structure of remnant Fitzroya cupressoides forests of Southern Chile's Central Depression. Bull.Torrey Bot. Club 126: 49-57.

Gardner MF, Thomas P, Lara A and B Escobar (1999) Fitzroya cupressoides. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 16: 229-240.

Gardner MF (1999). Managing ex situ conifer conservation collections. In: S. Andrews, A.C. Leslie and C. Alexander (Eds). Taxonomy of Cultivated Plants: Third International Symposium, pp. 19-23. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 


Allnutt T, Thomas P, Newton AC and MF Gardner (1998) Genetic variation in Fitzroya cupressoides cultivated in the British Isles, assessed using RAPDS. Edinburgh J. Bot. 55: 329-341.


Chair of the IUCN Conifer Specialist Group and Conifer Redlist Authority

Trustee of Rainforest Concern

Member of the Science & Education Committee of the International Dendrological Society

Member of the National Tree Collections of Scotland &  Perthshire Conifer Conservation Programme steering group

Advisory borad of Pinetum Blijdenstein in Hilversum, The Netherlands

Project websites


MBE (Member of the British Empire) in 2013 for services to conservation especially for initiatives concerning the Chilean flora

VMM (Veitch Memorial Medal) awarded by the Royal Horticultural Society in 2014 for services to horticulture

The Dr Patrick Neill Memorial Medal – awarded in 2011 by The Royal Caledonian Horticultural Society

Ken Martin Memorial Award – awarded in 2013 by the Scottish Branch of the Arboricultural Association

Research Group

Phil Thomas ( 1994 - )
ICCP Scientific Officer

Dr Robert Mill ( 1994 - 2018)
Research Associate

Tom Christian ( 2005 - 2017)
Research Assistant