Flora of Nepal

With about 7000 species of vascular plants, Nepal is a globally important biodiversity hot-spot.

Although Nepal is a small country it boasts a huge diversity of plant species because of its enormous range of habitats. Although most famous for the alpine vegetation of its high mountains, Nepal rises from subtropical lowland forests only 60 m above sea level.  The effects of the monsoonal climate vary widely across the country, with lush rhododendron forest on the southern slopes of the Himalayas receiving over 5000 mm of rain annually, while semi desert areas to the north of the main ranges receive barely 250 mm per year.


  • To coordinate activities contributing to the Flora of Nepal, the first comprehensive account of Nepal's vascular plants.
  • To undertake taxonomic revisions of Nepalese plants
  • To publish volumes of the Flora and make this information and supporting specimen information and images available over the internet.
  • To build the capacity of Nepalese institutions and botanists to participate in this work.
  • To explore under-collected regions of Nepal to increase our knowledge of the country's plants

Current activities

Volume 3 (Magnoliaceae to Rosaceae) was published in 2011.

Volume 4 (Leguminosae to Sapindaceae) is in preparation, with Japan as the Editorial Centre.

Volume 7 (Boraginaceae to Acanthaceae) is in preparation, with UK as the Editorial Centre.

Volume 10 (Araceae to Orchidaceae) is in preparation, with Nepal as the Editorial Centre.

Nepal: an introduction to the natural history, ecology and human impact in the Himalayas, the companion volume to the Flora of Nepal, will be published in November 2015. Further information can be found on the Flora of Nepal website.


Dr Mark Watson - Editor in Chief

Dr Colin Pendry - Researcher and Editor

Dr Bhaskar Adhikari - Researcher


Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Department of Plant Resources

Tribhuvan University, Central Department of Botany

Nepal Academy of Science and Technology

University of Tokyo

Society of Himalayan Botany

National History Museum, London

Missouri Botanical Garden

For information on our work in Nepal, please see the Flora of Nepal website.

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Meconopsis horridula

Meconopsis horridula from Nepal.

The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh is a charity (registration number SC007983)