Dr Robert Mill: Gymnosperm Systematist

email: Robert Mill

Phone: +44 (0)131 248 2935

Fax: +44 (0)131 248 2901

Research interests

After many years working on RBGE's Flora projects, particularly Turkey, Arabia, Bhutan, and China, I began monographic research on the southern hemisphere conifer families Araucariaceae and Podocarpaceae. I am currently co-authoring a major book on the biology and systematics of Araucaria and revising genera of Podocarpaceae. I have also recently been involved in a project that has helped to unravel some of the taxonomic problems in Chinese and Himalayan species of Taxus.

Current research

  • Systematics and biology of Araucaria
  • Systematics of Podocarpaceae using traditional and modern techniques
  • Cuticular micromorphology as a systematic tool in Podocarpaceae
  • Molecular phylogeny of Podocarpus, particularly of South America



Möller M, Gao LM, MILL RR, Liu J, Zhang DQ, Poudel RC and Li DZ. (2013) A multidisciplinary approach reveals hidden taxonomic diversity in the morphologically challenging Taxus wallichiana complex. Taxon 62 (6) 1161-1177


Mao K, Milne RI, Zhang L, Peng Y, Liu J, THOMAS P, MILL RR and S Renner (2012) Distribution of living Cupressaceae reflects the breakup of Pangea. PNAS 109: 7793–7798

MILL, R.R. and Whiting, M. (2012) Podocarpus orarius (Podocarpaceae), a new species from the Solomon Islands and a taxonomic clarification of Podocarpus spathoides from Malaysia. Gard. Bull. Singapore 64 (1) 171-193


Christenhusz, M.J.M., Reveal, J.L., Farjon, A., Gardner, M.F., MILL, R.R. & Chase, M.W.  (2011) A new classification and linear sequence of extant gymnosperms. Phytotaxa 19: 55–70

Stark Schilling, D. M. & MILL, R. R. (2011) Cuticle micromorphology of Caribbean and Central American species of Podocarpus (Podocarpaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 172 (5): 601-631


MILL, R. R. (2010) [1938] Proposal to reject the name Torreya bogotensis (Gymnosp., incertae sedis, Podocarp.). Taxon 59(3): 975-976 

MILL, R. R. & Stark Schilling, D. M. (2010) Typification and nomenclature of Podocarpus angustifolius Griseb. and Podocarpus aristulatus Parl. (Podocarpaceae). Taxon, 59(3): 935-956.

Stark Schilling, D. M. & MILL, R. R. (2010). [1937] Proposal to conserve Podocarpus aristulatus Parl. (Podocarpaceae) with a conserved type. Taxon, 59(3): 973-975


MILL, R. R. & Stark Schilling, D. Cuticular micromorphology of Saxegothaea Lindl. (Podocarpaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc., 159: 58-67


Gao, L.-M., Möller, M., Zhang, X.-M., Hollingsworth, M.L., Liu, J., MILL, R. R., Gibby, M., Li D.-Z. (2007). High variation and strong phylogeographic pattern among cpDNA haplotypes in the Taxus wallichiana complex (Taxaceae) in China and North Vietnam. Molecular Ecology 16: 4684-4698

Möller, M., Gao, L.-M., MILL, R. R., Li D.-Z, Hollingsworth, M.L. & Gibby, M. (2007). Morphometric analysis of the Taxus wallichiana-complex based on herbarium material. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 155: 307-335.


MILL, R. R.(2006). A new name for Podocarpus rotundus de Laub. (Podocarpaceae). Edin. J. Bot. 63: 81-83.

MILL, R. R. & Farjon, A. (2006). (1710). Proposal to conserve the name Xanthocyparis against Callitropsis Oerst. (Cupressaceae). Taxon 55: 229-231.



Brummitt, R. K., MILL, R. R. & Farjon, A. (2004). The significance of ‘it' in the nomenclature of three Tasmanian conifers: Microcachrys tetragona and Microstrobos niphophilus (Podocarpaceae), and Diselma archeri (Cupressaceae). Taxon 53(2): 529-539.

MILL, R. R. & Hill, R. S. (2004). Validations of the names of seven Podocarpaceae macrofossils. Taxon 53: 1043-1046.

MILL, R. R., Möller, M. Glidewell, S. M., Masson, D. & Williamson, B. (2004). Comparative anatomy and morphology of fertile complexes of Prumnopitys and Afrocarpus species (Podocarpaceae) as revealed by histology and NMR imaging, and their relevance to systematics. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145: 295-316.

MILL, R. R. & Weston, P. (2004). (1613-1614) Proposals to reject the names Polypodiopsis and Polypodiopsis muelleri (Plantae vasculares, incertae sedis). Taxon 53(1): 203-205.

MILL, R. R. (2004). (1612) Proposal to conserve Podocarpus affinis Seem. (Recent Podocarpaceae) over Podocarpus affinis A. Massal. (fossil Podocarpaceae). Taxon 53(1): 201-202

Muller, E. M., Barker, N. P. & MILL, R. R. (2004). A Yellowwood by any other name: Molecular systematics and the taxonomy of Podocarpus and the Podocarpaceae in Southern Africa. South African Journal of Science 100: 629-632.



Collins, D., MILL, R. R., & Möller, M. (2003). Species separation of Taxus baccata, T. canadensis, and T. cuspidata (Taxaceae) and origins of their reputed hybrids inferred from RAPD and cpDNA data. Amer. J. Bot. 90: 175-182.

MILL, R. R. (2003). Towards a biogeography of Podocarpaceae. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 615: 137-147.

MILL, R. R. (ed.) (2003). Proceedings of the International Conifer Conference 1999. Being Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 615. 485 pp.


Glidewell, S.M., Möller, M., Duncan, G., MILL, R.R., Masson, D. & Williamson, B. (2002). NMR imaging as a tool for noninvasive taxonomy: comparison of female cones of two Podocarpaceae. New Phytologist 154: 197-207. 

Herbert, J., Hollingsworth, P. M., Gardner, M. F., MILL, R. R., Thomas, P. I. & Jaffré, T. (2002). Conservation genetics and phylogenetics of New Caledonian Retrophyllum (Podocarpaceae) species. New Zealand J. Bot. 40(2): 175-188.

MILL, R.R. (2002). Proposal to conserve Podocarpus rotundus de Laub. (Recent Podocarpaceae) over Podocarpus rotundus Bocharn. (fossil Podocarpaceae). Taxon 51: 185-186.

MILL, R.R. & Quinn, C. J. (2002). Prumnopitys andina reinstated as the correct name for "lleuque", the Chilean conifer recently renamed P. spicata (Podocarpaceae). Taxon 50: 1143-1154.

Sinclair, W. T., MILL, R. R., Möller, M., Gardner, M. F., Woltz, P., Jaffré, T., Preston, J., Hollingsworth, M. & Ponge, (2002). A. Evolutionary relationships of the New Caledonian heterotrophic conifer, Parasitaxus usta (Podocarpaceae), inferred from chloroplast trnL-F intron / spacer and nuclear rDNA ITS2 sequences. Plant Syst. Evol. 233: 79-104.


Masson, D., Glidewell, S.M., Möller, M., MILL, R.R. & Williamson, B. (2001). Non-destructive examination of herbarium material for taxonomic studies using NMR imaging. Edinb. J. Bot. 58: 1-14.

MILL, R.R. (2001). A new sectional combination in Nageia Gaertn. (Podocarpaceae). Edin. J. Bot. 58: 499-501.

MILL, R.R. Möller, M., Glidewell, S.M., Masson, D., Christie, F. & Williamson, B. (2001). Morphology, anatomy and ontogeny of female cones in Acmopyle pancheri (Brongn. & Gris) Pilg. (Podocarpaceae). Annals of Botany 88: 55-67.


Möller, M., MILL, R.R., Glidewell, S.M., Masson, D., Williamson, B. & Bateman, R.M. (2000). Comparative biology and taxonomic significance of the pollination mechanisms in Acmopyle pancheri and Phyllocladus hypophyllus. Annals of Botany 86: 149-158.


Farjon, A. & MILL, R.R. (1388-1389) Proposals to conserve the current spelling of two generic names of conifers. Taxon 48: 151-154.

Fu Liguo, Li Nan & MILL, R.R. (1999). Ginkgoaceae, Araucariaceae, Pinaceae (except Abies and Picea), Taxodiaceae, Podocarpaceae, Cephalotaxaceae and Taxaceae. In Wu Zheng-yi & Raven, P.H., Flora of China 4: 8-25, 33-44, 52, 54-61, 78-96. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Fu Li-kuo, MILL, R.R. & Turland, N.J. (1999). Validation of the name Cephalotaxus latifolia (Cephalotaxaceae), a species from southeast China. Novon 9(2): 185-186.

MILL, R.R. & THOMAS, P. (1999). Plant portraits: 370. Falcatifolium taxoides. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 16(3): 199-211.

MILL, R.R. (1999). A new species of Larix from south-east Tibet and other nomenclatural notes on Chinese Larix. Novon 9(1): 79-82.

MILL, R.R. (1999). A new combination in Nageia (Podocarpaceae). Novon 9(1): 77-78.

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Dr Robert Mill

The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh is a charity (registration number SC007983)